Harvard Researchers Paid to Support Sugar

A recent story that has been appearing on the internet is that Harvard Researchers Paid to Support Sugar and this is the reason why sugar and carbohydrates have been exonerated in their role of causing heart disease. Fats and saturated fats have unfairly blamed for the obesity and heart disease epidemic.

The article states that, “Early warning signals of the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk of sugar (sucrose) emerged in the 1950s.”

“By the 1960s, 2 prominent physiologists were championing divergent causal hypotheses of CHD: John Yudkin identified added sugars as the primary agent, while Ancel Keys identified total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol. However, by the 1980s, few scientists believed that added sugars played a significant role in CHD, and the first 1980 Dietary Guidelines for Americans [4] focused on reducing total fat, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol for CHD prevention.”

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Rural Indian Regional Diets

Map of Indian Administration RegionsIndia is divided into 29 states and 9 union territories. In 2014, Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh. As a result, the statistics included in this document  for Andhra Pradesh also includes Telangana.[1]

Despite the reputation for vegetarian cuisine, it is not justified. Only 1.5% of Indians are vegan, 24% are lacto-vegetarian. 3% add eggs to their lacto-vegetarian diet which leaves 72% consuming meat.

Religion has a strong influence on diet with Muslims being restricted in eating pork and Hindus from eating beef. Jain and some Hindus have a strong preference for not eating meat.

There is much variation in diets in different regions of India with the uses of dairy, meat, fish, oils, vegetables, the use of spices and cooking methods.


The highest levels of Buddhist population are found in the northeast with Sikkim (27%), Arunachal Pradesh (12%), Mizoram (9%) and Maharashtra (6%).

Muslims are found more in the north with Lakshadweep (97%) and Jammu & Kashmir (68%) in the far northwest having the highest populations. Assam in the northeast has 34% and West Bengal 27%. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand and Uttarakhand have a population between 15-20%. In the south, Kerala (27%) is the most significant Islamic area.

Christian households consume much more rice than ‘other religious groups such as Jains, Buddhists and Sikhs who consume a much larger portion of wheat.

The lighter the regions, the higher the incidence of the adherents. Data is from 2011 Indian  Census. [2]

Religion Key to Religion Prevalence

Indian Regional Diets

From the 1990s,  there has been a fall in cereal intake with maize, barley, sorghum and millet being particularly affected. Consumption of vegetables, fruits and milk products has not increased significantly in the diet of rural population.

Regions with higher intake of cereals and milk consume the highest amount of nutrients.

Coarse cereals consist of maize, barley, sorghum, millet and other minor grains.

Pulses, beans and lentils are the central to Indian food. Pulse refers to dried seed. Daal refers to the split version of pulses such as lentils, peas, chickpeas and kidney beans.

Green gram is the same as mung beans. Black gram is known in India as urad which is similar to the mung bean.

Tomatoes via Portuguese explorers in the early 16th whilst potatoes were introduced in the early 17th centuries.

The following table shows the percentage difference in food intake when compared to the national average. All food is assigned to one of the categories.

If the difference is between 90-110%, then it is omitted.

Food ProductsNorthCentralWestEastNorth EastSouth
Rice & Rice Products32%72%85%126%190%136%
Wheat & Wheat Product167%150%78%82%15%18%
Coarse Cereals147%81%113%48%36%81%
Total Cereal112%
Milk (litre)203%83%63%51%74%
Sugar and Products167%121%54%67%
Edible oil67%84%74%
Meat Products61%61%67%133%139%
  • Rice consumption is greatest in the eastern, northeastern. southern and coastal parts of India
  • Wheat consumption is highest in northern, western and central regions [3]
  • Rice consumption is highest in northeast, eastern and southern regions [4]
  • Western India consume more coarse cereals as well as wheat
  • Meat is highest in southern, north-eastern and north-western regions
  • The major source of fat is edible oils (57%).
  • Fish in the western plain and Ghat, western dry and lower-Gangetic plain regions.
  • Vegetable consumption is low throughout the country with a greater prevalence in southern,eastern and northeastern regions
  • Whilst India is known for its lentil dishes, the east and northeastern regions are low in their consumption
  • The northern regions and Gujarat have a particularly high level of dairy products

There are many species of millets grown in the west and south of India with the states Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujart being the major areas. Although millets have always been secondary to rice, wheat and barley, it has been important in these areas. Millets are able to be grown on land that is not suitable for other cereals.

Millets are good sources of thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6) compared to wheat and rice. Millets also have high amounts of have good amounts of folic acid, iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium compared to rice and wheat. They are also high in fibre. [5]

During the years 1987-1988 and 1999-2000, the consumption of cereals decreased with millets decreasing significantly. Dairy, added oils, meat and processed food rose with meat, fish, eggs and processed food being particularly significant. These changes were not evenly spread throughout India. Meat, fish and egg consumption rose more than 100% from an already high level in West Bengal. [6]

Contribution of millets in total food grain production of India reduced from 22.17 % to 6.94 % over the last six decades from 1950-51 to 2011-12. [7]

The consumption of cereals barley, maize and millets in rural areas was reduced 50% from 2.59 to 1.30 kg/per capita/30 days during the period from 1987-88 to 1999-2000. In Andhra Pradesh, the consumption was reduced by 75% from 2.3 kg/per capita/30 days.[8]

Central Region

India Central RegionFrom north to south, the Central Region consists of the states Uttaranchal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh.

Uttaranchal is a mountainous region with wheat, buckwheat and millet the predominant grains. Dairy is use is limited.

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state and home to the Taj Mahal at Agra. Whilst the Himalayas border the state in the north, most of the state are plains. There are wide regional and cultural diversity in food. Wheat consumption is greater than rice.

Madhya Pradesh consumes a greater consumption of dairy and less meat than the other states. Wheat consumption is greater than rice.

Chhattisgarh consumes a greater proportion of meat than the other states. Wheat is the prominent grain along with corn, millet and pulses.

References in the Koran forbidding the use of onion and garlic results in a greater use of asafoetida. It is the dried gum of several species from the Umbelliferae family (parsley, carrots, fennel). It has a pungent, bitter smell that is transformed on cooking into a more subtle garlic or onion flavour.

As well as wheat, maize, millet, wheat, barley, peas, lentils, gram, mustard and potato are grown. The western regions have a high proportion of non-meat eaters with Madhya Pradesh (42%) and Uttar Pradesh (38%).

Fermented foods, including dairy,  is important in Uttaranchal  and northern Himalayan regions of Uttar Pradesh where food is less spicy and with a greater proportion of chicks, lamb, goat, pork, beef and yak.  Some Hindus and Buddhists are strict vegetarians.

Eastern Region

Indian Eastern Region The eastern region consists of the states Bihar, West Bengal (Bengale Occidental), Jharkhand and Odisha (Orissa). Rice is a more important cereal than wheat in the eastern states than the western states.

Bihar has the highest rural population (90%) of the Indian states. Chicken and mutton are the most common meat consumed. Fish is prevalent in the northern region which is a flat region with numerous rivers. Dairy products are common: butter; ghee; yogurt; matha (a sweet, spiced buttermilk); and lassi (a drink made from yogurt, spices, water and fruit). Bihar has the highest non-meat consumers (18%) in the region.

West Bengal contains Kolkata and the Ganges delta. Darjeeling is in the far north of the state which is in the foothills of the Himalayas with an altitude of up to 2000 m.

Jharkhand staple foods are rice, pules, vegetable and tubers. As well as potatoes, there are a number of that are gathered from the forest. The food of Jharkhand  and Odisha is less spicy than other regions.

Odisha is located on the eastern coast. The eastern region consists of a narrow coastal plain with mountainous regions to the west. Major rivers intersect the state. The prohibition of garlic and onions is lifted. Rice replaces wheat as the major cereal. Vegetable and fruit consumption is high as is meat consumption. Dairy consumption is low. Garlic, turmeric, chili and ginger are common spices.

Northeastern Region

Indian Northeastern RegionThe northeastern region comprises of 7 contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura with Sikkam being a separate state in the NW of the region. The climate is mostly subtropical with a very high rainfall.

The northern states of Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim are mountainous regions with cold winters and mild summers. The other states are are mostly subtropical with a very high rainfall.

Rice is the important grain. Tea is gown extensively.

Arunachal Pradesh is the northern most state of the region. Pork, poultry and mithun (bovine species that is native to the northeastern region as well as Bangladesh, Myanmar, Yunnan, province in China.)

Assam is another state that has a high meat diet with duck, goose as well as other poultry and fish prevalent. Food is preserved by drying and fermentation. Mustard oil is used extensively. Leafy greens are gathered from the wild.

Manipur has a greater variety of food than the other northeastern states. The food is spicier with more vegetables. It shares with its neighbours an extensive use of mustard oil.

Meghalaya is a mountainous region – the wettest place on earth. Pork, chicken and fish are common with a limited use of spices. Local gathered foods such as mushrooms are utilised.

Mizoram consume  pork, chicken and mithun which are dried and smoked for preservation. Plants and mushrooms are gathered from the wild as well as produced that is provided by small home gardens. Garlic, chili, onions, ginger and mustard oil are utilised extensively. Orchards provide a plentiful supply of fruit.

Nagaland has many different tribal groups with their own style of cooking. Poultry, pork, beef and fish are eaten. Food is preserved by salting, smoking and fermenting. A very spicy chili is used frequently.

Tripura is a hilly area with a subtropical climate in the south of the region. Pork, bison and fish are common meats. Fermented fish products are common. Mustard oil with its pungent taste, is used liberally.

Sikkam has the highest proportion of Buddhists (27%) than any other Indian state and as a result has a greater proportion of vegetarian dishes than the other states of the NE. Fermented food is an important part of the diet.

Northern Region

Indian Northern Region

Indian northern region comprises of the states  Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan as well as the cities and union territories of Delhi and Chandigarh.

Delhi contains New Delhi, the capital of India. Chandigarh is the capital of the neighbouring states of Punjab and Haryana.

Wheat is the main grain in the north with wheat begin produced cand consumed in much greater quantities than rice. There are many wheat flat breads such as roti and naan.

Muslims are happy to use onions and garlic, whereas the Hindus prefer to use asafoetida. It is the dried gum of several species from the ubiquitous Umbelliferae family (parsley, carrots, fennel). It has a pungent, bitter smell that is transformed on cooking into a garlic or onion flavour. Wheat is the main grain. The use of millets and barley are declining due to commercial growing of wheat although concerted efforts are being made to reintroduce these important foods.

Dairy in the form of milk, cream, panner (a fresh soft cheese made by curdling milk with fruit-derived acid) cottage cheese, ghee (clarified butter) and yogurt are utilised.

Mustard oil is an important part of diet.

Jammu and Kashmir is a former state that was reorganised into three union territories in 2019: Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Ladakh in the east. This is the only region in India with a Muslim majority population. The main meats consumed are lamb, chicken and beef.

Himachal Pradesh is a mountainous region in the western Himalayas. 45% of the population are non-meat eaters. Fish is consumed less frequently. In common with the 4 southern states, there is a higher consumption of dairy and lower consumption of meat than other areas of India. Bread, lentils, yogurt, pickles an chutney as well as rice are common fare.

Punjab has a high consumption of dairy with 50% of the population being non-meat eaters. Significant use of ghee, panner and fermented milks and mustard oil. Poultry, lamb and goat are the main meats consumed.

Haryana has a high consumption of dairy with 70% of the population being non-meat eaters – the highest in India. It mostly consists of plain region with foothills of the Himalayas in the north east and a desert region in the south west.

Potatoes, onions, tomatoes, brassicas, green leafy vegetables, legumes and fruit (citrus, guava and mango) are important components of diet. Spices include garlic, fenugreek and ginger.

Murrah, a breed of water buffalo, is utilised for milk production. Similarly with other northern states, dairy is consumed in high quantities.

Rajasthan is a largely desert state. A range of mountains run for most of the state from the south west to north east. The capital is Jaipur. Rajasthan has a high consumption of dairy, with only Haryana being higher, with 60% of the population being non-meat eaters.

It is similar to other northern states with less vegetables because of shortage of water. The food is spicy

Southern Region

Indian Southern Region

The coastal Western and Eastern Ghats border the southern part of India with the southern plateau and hills in the central region.
In 2014, Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh. Both states share the capital Hyderabad.

The region consists of the states Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Paducherry is a union territory consisting of two separate districts within the state oof Tamil Nadu.

Telangana is an inland state in the north of the region. Rice is consumed much more than wheat. Millets are being reintroduce after several decades of neglect. Food is very spicy with hot varieties of pickles prevalent.

Andhra Pradesh with its long coast line, fish and coconut oil are important components. Rice is the main grain along with lentils which are used in sambars (lentil-based vegetable stew with tamarind) and dhals.

Tamarind with its tangy sour taste is often tempered with sugar. Tamarind rice with green chilies, chutneys and pickles make this food the hottest and spiciest in India.

Karnataka comprises of a coastal region, the western hills and the plateau region. There are distinct dietary areas with coconut and fish more prevalent on the coast. Wheat is utilised more in the north. Mutton and pork with curries that are milder than other southern regions.

Tamil Nadu is another relatively high meat consuming region. It shares with Andhra Pradesh the liberal use of tamarind. Curries are sweeter and not as spicy as Andhra Pradesh.

Western Region

Indian Western Region

The western region consists of the states Gujarat, Maharashtra and Goa.

Gujarat is a state in north west India, It has the longest coastline of the Indian states. 55% of the population are non-meat eaters with only Haryana and Rajasthan being higher.



Indian Agroclimatic Regions

India is divided into 15 agroclimatic regions. The Indian Ocean island region of Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep is not considered in the discussion below.

Indian Diet and Health

The Indian population has the highest prevalence of diabetes worldwide and exhibits high-risk metabolic profiles at younger ages and lower body mass index than their Western counterparts. There are significant regional variations to this observation. [9]

The reasons why Asian populations exhibit diabetes at a lower threshold than western populations are not known.

According to WHO figures, India is ranked 17 for Low Birth Rate, 37 for Diarrhoeal Diseases, 40 for Tuberculosis, 60 for Malnutrition and 62 for Influenza & Pneumonia out of 183 countries. [10]

There is a large variation between states in risk factors associated with health between the states. [11]

In the data below, diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose level >= 7.0 mmol/L or >= 11.1 mmol/L for non-fasting. Hypertension is as systolic blood pressure of at least 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of at least 90 mmHg. The threshold for these definitions are high with optimal fasting glucose being 5.5-6.0 mmol/L and systolic blood pressure being less than 120 mmHg.

Age-standardized diabetes prevalence for men rose from 3.7% to 9.1% for women from 4.6% to 8.3% between the years 1980 to 2014.[12]

  • Smoking – Women: Tamil Nadu (0.0%) to Mizoram (18%)
  • Smoking – Men: Maharashtra (16%) to Mizoram (67%)
  • Obestiy (BMI >= 25): Madhya Pradesh (8%) to Kerala (27%)
  • Hypertension: Andhra Pradesh (17%) to Madhya Pradesh (21%)
  • Diabetes – Women: Mizoram (0.5%) to Kerala (5.3%)
  • Diabetes – Men: Madhya Pradesh (0.6%) to Kerala (6.5%)

There is a large variation in life expectancy between rural and urban populations and state populations. (Data from 1998-2002) The lowest life expectancy in rural India is Madhya Pradesh at 55.6 years with Kerala having the highest at 73.4. The difference between rural and urban populations is greatest in Assam at 9.5 years. [13]

Yellow shows the lowest third, blue the middle third and green the highest third.

Indian States Life Expectancy

Impact of Gluten-free Diets

There is a substantial difference between a standard western diet and a gluten-free diet. If a gluten-free diet is no warranted, a gluten-free diet may have unintended health consequences that are not beneficial as well as creating an additional inconvenience.

Consumption of complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) and dietary fibre can be significantly less.

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Glucose Tolerance – Comparison of High-Fat and High-Carb Diets

Way back in 1927, J. S. Sweeney assigned healthy, young medical students into four dietary groups: A high-carbohydrate diet; a high-fat diet; a high-protein diet; and a fasting diet.

After only two days on their highly improbable diets, the students were given a glucose tolerance test.

Which diet had the best response to the glucose tolerance test?

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A True Quest for Truth Denies Nothing

A truly wise person is able to see the world exactly how it is – free from any filters or preferences, judgments or undue optimism or pessimism.

Almost the truth simply does not work.

A quest for truth is only valid is you are prepared to change your beliefs based on what you have found.

A quest for truth is only useful if you are prepared to take action on what you have discovered.

Deny nothing

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Gut Health and Robert Beson

Australian Traditional Medicine Society FUNCTIONAL GI SYMPOSIUM 2019 was held in Sydney on Sunday 15th September.

Robert Beson presented a session Gut Health: Environmental & Internal Profile Consideration.

Unfortunately, there is very little information regarding his proboitic treatments.

Internet search results for “Robert Beson probiotics” or “Robert Beson gut healthy” lead to the Progurt website which sells probiotic supplements.

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Bread Does Not Make You Fat

Most people are under the impression that starchy foods such as bread and potatoes make you fat.

This is not the case – unless you cover your bread and potatoes with high-fat foods such as cheese, butter or sour cream.

Excess sugars and carbohydrates are stored as glycogen – not fats. Carbohydrates are not converted to fats. Animals, bacteria and fungi convert glucose to glycogen which is the form that glucose is stored.

Except in abnormal, extreme conditions, carbohydrates are not converted to fat in humans.

Fats make you fat – not carbohydrates.

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