How do Your Genes Affect Obesity and Diabetes Supplement

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A popular area of research is to determine genetic causes of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, autoimmune disease, depression and any other illness or condition that is plaguing our society. Proposed genetic solutions will result in expensive and profit-driven procedures that do not solve the primary cause of the problem.

This area of research ignores the fact that often our genetic code does not determine health outcomes and it will not solve the problems of our society’s rapidly failing health.

Frequently the problem is not that complicated.

An allele is one of two or more versions of a gene. An individual inherits two alleles for each gene, one from each parent.

The most familiar alleles relates to those that determine the ABO blood groups. The ABO blood groups are controlled by a gene that has 6 alleles (O, A, B) – 3 from each parent. Each person can have a gene consisting of the alleles OO, OA, OB, AA, BB or AB. This results in the blood groups O, A, B, A, B, AB since A and B alleles are dominant over the recessive O.

Below are the supplementary data bases associated with the Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success (DIETFITS) is a clinical trial.


The following table shows the baseline values at the start of the study and the changes after the study was completed at 12 months.

CriteriaUnitsLow-fat dietLow-carb diet
Baseline12 month
Change
% ChangeBaseline12 month
Change
% Change
Weightkg97.5-5.29-5.496.3-5.996.2
BMIkg/(m * m)33.4-1.75-5.233.3-2.07-6.3
HDLmmol/L1.280
01.290.17.8
LDLmmol/L2.89-0.1-3.42.94
0.13.4
Triglyceridesmmol/L1.45-0.11-7.51.450.3222.1
Blood pressure
(systolic)
mmHg122.9-3.18-2.6122.9-3.72-3.0
Fasting glucosemmol/L5.5-0.2-3.65.5-0.1-1.8
Fasting insulinpmol/L110-18-16.4108-16-14.8

The following table shows how the authors grouped the genotypes into the low-fat genotype and low-carbohydrate genotype based on variants to the alleles. The variants are indicated in bold. C’ is pronounced as C prime.

GenotypePatternFABP2
G > A
PPARG
C > G
ADRB2
C > G
Freq
%
Low Fat Genotype
Low fat
Genotype
1GA'C'C'CC14
Low fat
Genotype
2GA'C'C'CG14
Low fat
Genotype
3GA'C'C'GG4
Low fat
Genotype
4A'AC'C'CC4
Low fat
Genotype
5A'AC'C'CG3
Low Carbohydrate Genotype
Low carb
Genotype
6GACG'CG'6
Low carb
Genotype
7GGCG'CG'5
Low carb
Genotype
8GGCG'GG'1
Low carb
Genotype
9AACG'CG'1
Low carb
Genotype
10GACG'GG'1
Low carb
Genotype
11GGCCCG'19
Low carb
Genotype
12GGCG'CC4
Low carb
Genotype
13GACG'CC3
Low carb
Genotype
14GGCCGG'3
No Genotype
None15GGCCCC17

The following table shows the participants with metabolic syndrome at baseline (the start of the study) and the number of participants in the each of genotype groups for the 2 diets.

CriteriaUnitsLow-fat dietLow-carb diet
Metabolic
syndrome
%34.832.9
Genotype -
Low-fat
%42.637.5
Genotype -
Low-carb
%27.231.9
Genotype -
None
%23.025.0

The following table shows the change in the metabolic syndrome status after 12 months, for the 2 diets.

Only 12% of the participants were able to overcome their metabolic syndrome after 12 months on their hypothesised healthy diet.

Note the number of participants that had metabolic syndrome at the completion of the study that were free of the condition at the start of the study.

CriteriaUnitsBaseline12
months
Low-fat diet
at 12 months
Low-carb diet
at 12 months
Metabolic
syndrome
%YesNo11.811.8
Metabolic
syndrome
%YesYes12.811.8
Metabolic
syndrome
%NoNo42.045.1
Metabolic
syndrome
%NoYes4.33.6

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